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route.c

/*-
 * Copyright (c) 1983, 1988, 1993
 *    The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
 *    must display the following acknowledgement:
 *    This product includes software developed by the University of
 *    California, Berkeley and its contributors.
 * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
 *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *    without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

#if 0
#ifndef lint
static char sccsid[] = "From: @(#)route.c 8.6 (Berkeley) 4/28/95";
#endif /* not lint */
#endif

#include <sys/cdefs.h>
__FBSDID("$FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/netstat/route.c,v 1.82.2.7.2.1 2008/11/25 02:59:29 kensmith Exp $");

#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/protosw.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/socketvar.h>
#include <sys/time.h>

#include <net/ethernet.h>
#include <net/if.h>
#include <net/if_var.h>
#include <net/if_dl.h>
#include <net/if_types.h>
#include <net/radix.h>
#include <net/route.h>

#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netipx/ipx.h>
#include <netatalk/at.h>
#include <netgraph/ng_socket.h>

#include <sys/sysctl.h>

#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <libutil.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sysexits.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <err.h>
#include "netstat.h"

#define     kget(p, d) (kread((u_long)(p), (char *)&(d), sizeof (d)))

/*
 * Definitions for showing gateway flags.
 */
struct bits {
      u_long      b_mask;
      char  b_val;
} bits[] = {
      { RTF_UP,   'U' },
      { RTF_GATEWAY,    'G' },
      { RTF_HOST, 'H' },
      { RTF_REJECT,     'R' },
      { RTF_DYNAMIC,    'D' },
      { RTF_MODIFIED,   'M' },
      { RTF_DONE, 'd' }, /* Completed -- for routing messages only */
      { RTF_CLONING,    'C' },
      { RTF_XRESOLVE,   'X' },
      { RTF_LLINFO,     'L' },
      { RTF_STATIC,     'S' },
      { RTF_PROTO1,     '1' },
      { RTF_PROTO2,     '2' },
      { RTF_WASCLONED,'W' },
      { RTF_PRCLONING,'c' },
      { RTF_PROTO3,     '3' },
      { RTF_BLACKHOLE,'B' },
      { RTF_BROADCAST,'b' },
      { 0 , 0 }
};

typedef union {
      long  dummy;            /* Helps align structure. */
      struct      sockaddr u_sa;
      u_short     u_data[128];
} sa_u;

static sa_u pt_u;

int   fibnum;
int   do_rtent = 0;
struct      rtentry rtentry;
struct      radix_node rnode;
struct      radix_mask rmask;
struct  rtline  {
      struct      radix_node_head *tables[AF_MAX+1]; /*xxx*/
};
struct      rtline *rt_tables;

struct      radix_node_head *rt_tables_line[1][AF_MAX+1]; /*xxx*/

int   NewTree = 0;

struct      timespec uptime;

static struct sockaddr *kgetsa(struct sockaddr *);
static void size_cols(int ef, struct radix_node *rn);
static void size_cols_tree(struct radix_node *rn);
static void size_cols_rtentry(struct rtentry *rt);
static void p_tree(struct radix_node *);
static void p_rtnode(void);
static void ntreestuff(void);
static void np_rtentry(struct rt_msghdr *);
static void p_sockaddr(struct sockaddr *, struct sockaddr *, int, int);
static const char *fmt_sockaddr(struct sockaddr *sa, struct sockaddr *mask,
    int flags);
static void p_flags(int, const char *);
static const char *fmt_flags(int f);
static void p_rtentry(struct rtentry *);
static void domask(char *, in_addr_t, u_long);

/*
 * Print routing tables.
 */
void
routepr(u_long rtree)
{
      struct radix_node_head *rnh, head;
      size_t intsize;
      int i;
      int numfibs;

      intsize = sizeof(int);
      if (sysctlbyname("net.my_fibnum", &fibnum, &intsize, NULL, 0) == -1)
            fibnum = 0;
      if (sysctlbyname("net.fibs", &numfibs, &intsize, NULL, 0) == -1)
            numfibs = 1;
      rt_tables = calloc(numfibs, sizeof(struct rtline));
      if (rt_tables == NULL)
            err(EX_OSERR, "memory allocation failed");
      /*
       * Since kernel & userland use different timebase
       * (time_uptime vs time_second) and we are reading kernel memory
       * directly we should do rt_rmx.rmx_expire --> expire_time conversion.
       */
      if (clock_gettime(CLOCK_UPTIME, &uptime) < 0)
            err(EX_OSERR, "clock_gettime() failed");

      printf("Routing tables\n");

      if (Aflag == 0 && NewTree)
            ntreestuff();
      else {
            if (rtree == 0) {
                  printf("rt_tables: symbol not in namelist\n");
                  return;
            }

            if (kread((u_long)(rtree), (char *)(rt_tables),
                (numfibs * sizeof(struct rtline))) != 0)
                  return;
            for (i = 0; i <= AF_MAX; i++) {
                  int tmpfib;
                  if (i != AF_INET)
                        tmpfib = 0;
                  else
                        tmpfib = fibnum;
                  if ((rnh = rt_tables[tmpfib].tables[i]) == 0)
                        continue;
                  if (kget(rnh, head) != 0)
                        continue;
                  if (i == AF_UNSPEC) {
                        if (Aflag && af == 0) {
                              printf("Netmasks:\n");
                              p_tree(head.rnh_treetop);
                        }
                  } else if (af == AF_UNSPEC || af == i) {
                        size_cols(i, head.rnh_treetop);
                        pr_family(i);
                        do_rtent = 1;
                        pr_rthdr(i);
                        p_tree(head.rnh_treetop);
                  }
            }
      }
}

/*
 * Print address family header before a section of the routing table.
 */
void
pr_family(int af1)
{
      const char *afname;

      switch (af1) {
      case AF_INET:
            afname = "Internet";
            break;
#ifdef INET6
      case AF_INET6:
            afname = "Internet6";
            break;
#endif /*INET6*/
      case AF_IPX:
            afname = "IPX";
            break;
      case AF_ISO:
            afname = "ISO";
            break;
      case AF_APPLETALK:
            afname = "AppleTalk";
            break;
      case AF_CCITT:
            afname = "X.25";
            break;
      case AF_NETGRAPH:
            afname = "Netgraph";
            break;
      default:
            afname = NULL;
            break;
      }
      if (afname)
            printf("\n%s:\n", afname);
      else
            printf("\nProtocol Family %d:\n", af1);
}

/* column widths; each followed by one space */
#ifndef INET6
#define     WID_DST_DEFAULT(af)     18    /* width of destination column */
#define     WID_GW_DEFAULT(af)      18    /* width of gateway column */
#define     WID_IF_DEFAULT(af)      (Wflag ? 8 : 6)   /* width of netif column */
#else
#define     WID_DST_DEFAULT(af) \
      ((af) == AF_INET6 ? (numeric_addr ? 33: 18) : 18)
#define     WID_GW_DEFAULT(af) \
      ((af) == AF_INET6 ? (numeric_addr ? 29 : 18) : 18)
#define     WID_IF_DEFAULT(af)      ((af) == AF_INET6 ? 8 : (Wflag ? 8 : 6))
#endif /*INET6*/

static int wid_dst;
static int wid_gw;
static int wid_flags;
static int wid_refs;
static int wid_use;
static int wid_mtu;
static int wid_if;
static int wid_expire;

static void
size_cols(int ef __unused, struct radix_node *rn)
{
      wid_dst = WID_DST_DEFAULT(ef);
      wid_gw = WID_GW_DEFAULT(ef);
      wid_flags = 6;
      wid_refs = 6;
      wid_use = 8;
      wid_mtu = 6;
      wid_if = WID_IF_DEFAULT(ef);
      wid_expire = 6;

      if (Wflag)
            size_cols_tree(rn);
}

static void
size_cols_tree(struct radix_node *rn)
{
again:
      if (kget(rn, rnode) != 0)
            return;
      if (!(rnode.rn_flags & RNF_ACTIVE))
            return;
      if (rnode.rn_bit < 0) {
            if ((rnode.rn_flags & RNF_ROOT) == 0) {
                  if (kget(rn, rtentry) != 0)
                        return;
                  size_cols_rtentry(&rtentry);
            }
            if ((rn = rnode.rn_dupedkey))
                  goto again;
      } else {
            rn = rnode.rn_right;
            size_cols_tree(rnode.rn_left);
            size_cols_tree(rn);
      }
}

static void
size_cols_rtentry(struct rtentry *rt)
{
      static struct ifnet ifnet, *lastif;
      struct rtentry parent;
      static char buffer[100];
      const char *bp;
      struct sockaddr *sa;
      sa_u addr, mask;
      int len;

      /*
       * Don't print protocol-cloned routes unless -a.
       */
      if (rt->rt_flags & RTF_WASCLONED && !aflag) {
            if (kget(rt->rt_parent, parent) != 0)
                  return;
            if (parent.rt_flags & RTF_PRCLONING)
                  return;
      }

      bzero(&addr, sizeof(addr));
      if ((sa = kgetsa(rt_key(rt))))
            bcopy(sa, &addr, sa->sa_len);
      bzero(&mask, sizeof(mask));
      if (rt_mask(rt) && (sa = kgetsa(rt_mask(rt))))
            bcopy(sa, &mask, sa->sa_len);
      bp = fmt_sockaddr(&addr.u_sa, &mask.u_sa, rt->rt_flags);
      len = strlen(bp);
      wid_dst = MAX(len, wid_dst);

      bp = fmt_sockaddr(kgetsa(rt->rt_gateway), NULL, RTF_HOST);
      len = strlen(bp);
      wid_gw = MAX(len, wid_gw);

      bp = fmt_flags(rt->rt_flags);
      len = strlen(bp);
      wid_flags = MAX(len, wid_flags);

      if (addr.u_sa.sa_family == AF_INET || Wflag) {
            len = snprintf(buffer, sizeof(buffer), "%ld", rt->rt_refcnt);
            wid_refs = MAX(len, wid_refs);
            len = snprintf(buffer, sizeof(buffer), "%lu", rt->rt_use);
            wid_use = MAX(len, wid_use);
            if (Wflag && rt->rt_rmx.rmx_mtu != 0) {
                  len = snprintf(buffer, sizeof(buffer),
                               "%lu", rt->rt_rmx.rmx_mtu);
                  wid_mtu = MAX(len, wid_mtu);
            }
      }
      if (rt->rt_ifp) {
            if (rt->rt_ifp != lastif) {
                  if (kget(rt->rt_ifp, ifnet) == 0) 
                        len = strlen(ifnet.if_xname);
                  else
                        len = strlen("---");
                  lastif = rt->rt_ifp;
                  wid_if = MAX(len, wid_if);
            }
            if (rt->rt_rmx.rmx_expire) {
                  time_t expire_time;

                  if ((expire_time =
                      rt->rt_rmx.rmx_expire - uptime.tv_sec) > 0) {
                        len = snprintf(buffer, sizeof(buffer), "%d",
                                     (int)expire_time);
                        wid_expire = MAX(len, wid_expire);
                  }
            }
      }
}


/*
 * Print header for routing table columns.
 */
void
pr_rthdr(int af1)
{

      if (Aflag)
            printf("%-8.8s ","Address");
      if (af1 == AF_INET || Wflag) {
            if (Wflag) {
                  printf("%-*.*s %-*.*s %-*.*s %*.*s %*.*s %*.*s %*.*s %*s\n",
                        wid_dst,    wid_dst,    "Destination",
                        wid_gw,           wid_gw,           "Gateway",
                        wid_flags,  wid_flags,  "Flags",
                        wid_refs,   wid_refs,   "Refs",
                        wid_use,    wid_use,    "Use",
                        wid_mtu,    wid_mtu,    "Mtu",
                        wid_if,           wid_if,           "Netif",
                        wid_expire,             "Expire");
            } else {
                  printf("%-*.*s %-*.*s %-*.*s %*.*s %*.*s %*.*s %*s\n",
                        wid_dst,    wid_dst,    "Destination",
                        wid_gw,           wid_gw,           "Gateway",
                        wid_flags,  wid_flags,  "Flags",
                        wid_refs,   wid_refs,   "Refs",
                        wid_use,    wid_use,    "Use",
                        wid_if,           wid_if,           "Netif",
                        wid_expire,             "Expire");
            }
      } else {
            printf("%-*.*s %-*.*s %-*.*s  %*.*s %*s\n",
                  wid_dst,    wid_dst,    "Destination",
                  wid_gw,           wid_gw,           "Gateway",
                  wid_flags,  wid_flags,  "Flags",
                  wid_if,           wid_if,           "Netif",
                  wid_expire,             "Expire");
      }
}

static struct sockaddr *
kgetsa(struct sockaddr *dst)
{

      if (kget(dst, pt_u.u_sa) != 0)
            return (NULL);
      if (pt_u.u_sa.sa_len > sizeof (pt_u.u_sa))
            kread((u_long)dst, (char *)pt_u.u_data, pt_u.u_sa.sa_len);
      return (&pt_u.u_sa);
}

static void
p_tree(struct radix_node *rn)
{

again:
      if (kget(rn, rnode) != 0)
            return;
      if (!(rnode.rn_flags & RNF_ACTIVE))
            return;
      if (rnode.rn_bit < 0) {
            if (Aflag)
                  printf("%-8.8lx ", (u_long)rn);
            if (rnode.rn_flags & RNF_ROOT) {
                  if (Aflag)
                        printf("(root node)%s",
                            rnode.rn_dupedkey ? " =>\n" : "\n");
            } else if (do_rtent) {
                  if (kget(rn, rtentry) == 0) {
                        p_rtentry(&rtentry);
                        if (Aflag)
                              p_rtnode();
                  }
            } else {
                  p_sockaddr(kgetsa((struct sockaddr *)rnode.rn_key),
                           NULL, 0, 44);
                  putchar('\n');
            }
            if ((rn = rnode.rn_dupedkey))
                  goto again;
      } else {
            if (Aflag && do_rtent) {
                  printf("%-8.8lx ", (u_long)rn);
                  p_rtnode();
            }
            rn = rnode.rn_right;
            p_tree(rnode.rn_left);
            p_tree(rn);
      }
}

char  nbuf[20];

static void
p_rtnode(void)
{
      struct radix_mask *rm = rnode.rn_mklist;

      if (rnode.rn_bit < 0) {
            if (rnode.rn_mask) {
                  printf("\t  mask ");
                  p_sockaddr(kgetsa((struct sockaddr *)rnode.rn_mask),
                           NULL, 0, -1);
            } else if (rm == 0)
                  return;
      } else {
            sprintf(nbuf, "(%d)", rnode.rn_bit);
            printf("%6.6s %8.8lx : %8.8lx", nbuf, (u_long)rnode.rn_left, (u_long)rnode.rn_right);
      }
      while (rm) {
            if (kget(rm, rmask) != 0)
                  break;
            sprintf(nbuf, " %d refs, ", rmask.rm_refs);
            printf(" mk = %8.8lx {(%d),%s",
                  (u_long)rm, -1 - rmask.rm_bit, rmask.rm_refs ? nbuf : " ");
            if (rmask.rm_flags & RNF_NORMAL) {
                  struct radix_node rnode_aux;
                  printf(" <normal>, ");
                  if (kget(rmask.rm_leaf, rnode_aux) == 0)
                        p_sockaddr(kgetsa((struct sockaddr *)rnode_aux.rn_mask),
                            NULL, 0, -1);
                  else
                        p_sockaddr(NULL, NULL, 0, -1);
            } else
                p_sockaddr(kgetsa((struct sockaddr *)rmask.rm_mask),
                        NULL, 0, -1);
            putchar('}');
            if ((rm = rmask.rm_mklist))
                  printf(" ->");
      }
      putchar('\n');
}

static void
ntreestuff(void)
{
      size_t needed;
      int mib[6];
      char *buf, *next, *lim;
      struct rt_msghdr *rtm;

      mib[0] = CTL_NET;
      mib[1] = PF_ROUTE;
      mib[2] = 0;
      mib[3] = 0;
      mib[4] = NET_RT_DUMP;
      mib[5] = 0;
      if (sysctl(mib, 6, NULL, &needed, NULL, 0) < 0) {
            err(1, "sysctl: net.route.0.0.dump estimate");
      }

      if ((buf = malloc(needed)) == 0) {
            errx(2, "malloc(%lu)", (unsigned long)needed);
      }
      if (sysctl(mib, 6, buf, &needed, NULL, 0) < 0) {
            err(1, "sysctl: net.route.0.0.dump");
      }
      lim  = buf + needed;
      for (next = buf; next < lim; next += rtm->rtm_msglen) {
            rtm = (struct rt_msghdr *)next;
            np_rtentry(rtm);
      }
}

static void
np_rtentry(struct rt_msghdr *rtm)
{
      struct sockaddr *sa = (struct sockaddr *)(rtm + 1);
#ifdef notdef
      static int masks_done, banner_printed;
#endif
      static int old_af;
      int af1 = 0, interesting = RTF_UP | RTF_GATEWAY | RTF_HOST;

#ifdef notdef
      /* for the moment, netmasks are skipped over */
      if (!banner_printed) {
            printf("Netmasks:\n");
            banner_printed = 1;
      }
      if (masks_done == 0) {
            if (rtm->rtm_addrs != RTA_DST ) {
                  masks_done = 1;
                  af1 = sa->sa_family;
            }
      } else
#endif
            af1 = sa->sa_family;
      if (af1 != old_af) {
            pr_family(af1);
            old_af = af1;
      }
      if (rtm->rtm_addrs == RTA_DST)
            p_sockaddr(sa, NULL, 0, 36);
      else {
            p_sockaddr(sa, NULL, rtm->rtm_flags, 16);
            sa = (struct sockaddr *)(SA_SIZE(sa) + (char *)sa);
            p_sockaddr(sa, NULL, 0, 18);
      }
      p_flags(rtm->rtm_flags & interesting, "%-6.6s ");
      putchar('\n');
}

static void
p_sockaddr(struct sockaddr *sa, struct sockaddr *mask, int flags, int width)
{
      const char *cp;

      cp = fmt_sockaddr(sa, mask, flags);

      if (width < 0 )
            printf("%s ", cp);
      else {
            if (numeric_addr)
                  printf("%-*s ", width, cp);
            else
                  printf("%-*.*s ", width, width, cp);
      }
}

static const char *
fmt_sockaddr(struct sockaddr *sa, struct sockaddr *mask, int flags)
{
      static char workbuf[128];
      const char *cp;

      if (sa == NULL)
            return ("null");

      switch(sa->sa_family) {
      case AF_INET:
          {
            struct sockaddr_in *sockin = (struct sockaddr_in *)sa;

            if ((sockin->sin_addr.s_addr == INADDR_ANY) &&
                  mask &&
                  ntohl(((struct sockaddr_in *)mask)->sin_addr.s_addr)
                        ==0L)
                        cp = "default" ;
            else if (flags & RTF_HOST)
                  cp = routename(sockin->sin_addr.s_addr);
            else if (mask)
                  cp = netname(sockin->sin_addr.s_addr,
                             ntohl(((struct sockaddr_in *)mask)
                                 ->sin_addr.s_addr));
            else
                  cp = netname(sockin->sin_addr.s_addr, 0L);
            break;
          }

#ifdef INET6
      case AF_INET6:
          {
            struct sockaddr_in6 *sa6 = (struct sockaddr_in6 *)sa;
            struct in6_addr *in6 = &sa6->sin6_addr;

            /*
             * XXX: This is a special workaround for KAME kernels.
             * sin6_scope_id field of SA should be set in the future.
             */
            if (IN6_IS_ADDR_LINKLOCAL(in6) ||
                IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_LINKLOCAL(in6)) {
                /* XXX: override is ok? */
                sa6->sin6_scope_id = (u_int32_t)ntohs(*(u_short *)&in6->s6_addr[2]);
                *(u_short *)&in6->s6_addr[2] = 0;
            }

            if (flags & RTF_HOST)
                cp = routename6(sa6);
            else if (mask)
                cp = netname6(sa6,
                          &((struct sockaddr_in6 *)mask)->sin6_addr);
            else {
                cp = netname6(sa6, NULL);
            }
            break;
          }
#endif /*INET6*/

      case AF_IPX:
          {
            struct ipx_addr work = ((struct sockaddr_ipx *)sa)->sipx_addr;
            if (ipx_nullnet(satoipx_addr(work)))
                  cp = "default";
            else
                  cp = ipx_print(sa);
            break;
          }
      case AF_APPLETALK:
          {
            if (!(flags & RTF_HOST) && mask)
                  cp = atalk_print2(sa,mask,9);
            else
                  cp = atalk_print(sa,11);
            break;
          }
      case AF_NETGRAPH:
          {
            strlcpy(workbuf, ((struct sockaddr_ng *)sa)->sg_data,
                    sizeof(workbuf));
            cp = workbuf;
            break;
          }

      case AF_LINK:
          {
            struct sockaddr_dl *sdl = (struct sockaddr_dl *)sa;

            if (sdl->sdl_nlen == 0 && sdl->sdl_alen == 0 &&
                sdl->sdl_slen == 0) {
                  (void) sprintf(workbuf, "link#%d", sdl->sdl_index);
                  cp = workbuf;
            } else
                  switch (sdl->sdl_type) {

                  case IFT_ETHER:
                  case IFT_L2VLAN:
                  case IFT_BRIDGE:
                        if (sdl->sdl_alen == ETHER_ADDR_LEN) {
                              cp = ether_ntoa((struct ether_addr *)
                                  (sdl->sdl_data + sdl->sdl_nlen));
                              break;
                        }
                        /* FALLTHROUGH */
                  default:
                        cp = link_ntoa(sdl);
                        break;
                  }
            break;
          }

      default:
          {
            u_char *s = (u_char *)sa->sa_data, *slim;
            char *cq, *cqlim;

            cq = workbuf;
            slim =  sa->sa_len + (u_char *) sa;
            cqlim = cq + sizeof(workbuf) - 6;
            cq += sprintf(cq, "(%d)", sa->sa_family);
            while (s < slim && cq < cqlim) {
                  cq += sprintf(cq, " %02x", *s++);
                  if (s < slim)
                      cq += sprintf(cq, "%02x", *s++);
            }
            cp = workbuf;
          }
      }

      return (cp);
}

static void
p_flags(int f, const char *format)
{
      printf(format, fmt_flags(f));
}

static const char *
fmt_flags(int f)
{
      static char name[33];
      char *flags;
      struct bits *p = bits;

      for (flags = name; p->b_mask; p++)
            if (p->b_mask & f)
                  *flags++ = p->b_val;
      *flags = '\0';
      return (name);
}

static void
p_rtentry(struct rtentry *rt)
{
      static struct ifnet ifnet, *lastif;
      struct rtentry parent;
      static char buffer[128];
      static char prettyname[128];
      struct sockaddr *sa;
      sa_u addr, mask;

      /*
       * Don't print protocol-cloned routes unless -a.
       */
      if (rt->rt_flags & RTF_WASCLONED && !aflag) {
            if (kget(rt->rt_parent, parent) != 0)
                  return;
            if (parent.rt_flags & RTF_PRCLONING)
                  return;
      }

      bzero(&addr, sizeof(addr));
      if ((sa = kgetsa(rt_key(rt))))
            bcopy(sa, &addr, sa->sa_len);
      bzero(&mask, sizeof(mask));
      if (rt_mask(rt) && (sa = kgetsa(rt_mask(rt))))
            bcopy(sa, &mask, sa->sa_len);
      p_sockaddr(&addr.u_sa, &mask.u_sa, rt->rt_flags, wid_dst);
      p_sockaddr(kgetsa(rt->rt_gateway), NULL, RTF_HOST, wid_gw);
      snprintf(buffer, sizeof(buffer), "%%-%d.%ds ", wid_flags, wid_flags);
      p_flags(rt->rt_flags, buffer);
      if (addr.u_sa.sa_family == AF_INET || Wflag) {
            printf("%*ld %*lu ", wid_refs, rt->rt_refcnt,
                             wid_use, rt->rt_use);
            if (Wflag) {
                  if (rt->rt_rmx.rmx_mtu != 0)
                        printf("%*lu ", wid_mtu, rt->rt_rmx.rmx_mtu);
                  else
                        printf("%*s ", wid_mtu, "");
            }
      }
      if (rt->rt_ifp) {
            if (rt->rt_ifp != lastif) {
                  if (kget(rt->rt_ifp, ifnet) == 0)
                        strlcpy(prettyname, ifnet.if_xname,
                            sizeof(prettyname));
                  else
                        strlcpy(prettyname, "---", sizeof(prettyname));
                  lastif = rt->rt_ifp;
            }
            printf("%*.*s", wid_if, wid_if, prettyname);
            if (rt->rt_rmx.rmx_expire) {
                  time_t expire_time;

                  if ((expire_time =
                      rt->rt_rmx.rmx_expire - uptime.tv_sec) > 0)
                        printf(" %*d", wid_expire, (int)expire_time);
            }
            if (rt->rt_nodes[0].rn_dupedkey)
                  printf(" =>");
      }
      putchar('\n');
}

char *
routename(in_addr_t in)
{
      char *cp;
      static char line[MAXHOSTNAMELEN];
      struct hostent *hp;

      cp = 0;
      if (!numeric_addr) {
            hp = gethostbyaddr(&in, sizeof (struct in_addr), AF_INET);
            if (hp) {
                  cp = hp->h_name;
                  trimdomain(cp, strlen(cp));
            }
      }
      if (cp) {
            strncpy(line, cp, sizeof(line) - 1);
            line[sizeof(line) - 1] = '\0';
      } else {
#define     C(x)  ((x) & 0xff)
            in = ntohl(in);
            sprintf(line, "%u.%u.%u.%u",
                C(in >> 24), C(in >> 16), C(in >> 8), C(in));
      }
      return (line);
}

#define     NSHIFT(m) (                                     \
      (m) == IN_CLASSA_NET ? IN_CLASSA_NSHIFT :             \
      (m) == IN_CLASSB_NET ? IN_CLASSB_NSHIFT :             \
      (m) == IN_CLASSC_NET ? IN_CLASSC_NSHIFT :             \
      0)

static void
domask(char *dst, in_addr_t addr __unused, u_long mask)
{
      int b, i;

      if (mask == 0 || (!numeric_addr && NSHIFT(mask) != 0)) {
            *dst = '\0';
            return;
      }
      i = 0;
      for (b = 0; b < 32; b++)
            if (mask & (1 << b)) {
                  int bb;

                  i = b;
                  for (bb = b+1; bb < 32; bb++)
                        if (!(mask & (1 << bb))) {
                              i = -1;     /* noncontig */
                              break;
                        }
                  break;
            }
      if (i == -1)
            sprintf(dst, "&0x%lx", mask);
      else
            sprintf(dst, "/%d", 32-i);
}

/*
 * Return the name of the network whose address is given.
 * The address is assumed to be that of a net or subnet, not a host.
 */
char *
netname(in_addr_t in, u_long mask)
{
      char *cp = 0;
      static char line[MAXHOSTNAMELEN];
      struct netent *np = 0;
      in_addr_t i;

      i = ntohl(in);
      if (!numeric_addr && i) {
            np = getnetbyaddr(i >> NSHIFT(mask), AF_INET);
            if (np != NULL) {
                  cp = np->n_name;
                  trimdomain(cp, strlen(cp));
            }
      }
      if (cp != NULL) {
            strncpy(line, cp, sizeof(line) - 1);
            line[sizeof(line) - 1] = '\0';
      } else {
            inet_ntop(AF_INET, &in, line, sizeof(line) - 1);
      }
      domask(line + strlen(line), i, mask);
      return (line);
}

#undef NSHIFT

#ifdef INET6
const char *
netname6(struct sockaddr_in6 *sa6, struct in6_addr *mask)
{
      static char line[MAXHOSTNAMELEN];
      u_char *p = (u_char *)mask;
      u_char *lim;
      int masklen, illegal = 0, flag = 0;

      if (mask) {
            for (masklen = 0, lim = p + 16; p < lim; p++) {
                  switch (*p) {
                   case 0xff:
                         masklen += 8;
                         break;
                   case 0xfe:
                         masklen += 7;
                         break;
                   case 0xfc:
                         masklen += 6;
                         break;
                   case 0xf8:
                         masklen += 5;
                         break;
                   case 0xf0:
                         masklen += 4;
                         break;
                   case 0xe0:
                         masklen += 3;
                         break;
                   case 0xc0:
                         masklen += 2;
                         break;
                   case 0x80:
                         masklen += 1;
                         break;
                   case 0x00:
                         break;
                   default:
                         illegal ++;
                         break;
                  }
            }
            if (illegal)
                  fprintf(stderr, "illegal prefixlen\n");
      }
      else
            masklen = 128;

      if (masklen == 0 && IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED(&sa6->sin6_addr))
            return("default");

      if (numeric_addr)
            flag |= NI_NUMERICHOST;
      getnameinfo((struct sockaddr *)sa6, sa6->sin6_len, line, sizeof(line),
                NULL, 0, flag);

      if (numeric_addr)
            sprintf(&line[strlen(line)], "/%d", masklen);

      return line;
}

char *
routename6(struct sockaddr_in6 *sa6)
{
      static char line[MAXHOSTNAMELEN];
      int flag = 0;
      /* use local variable for safety */
      struct sockaddr_in6 sa6_local;

      sa6_local.sin6_family = AF_INET6;
      sa6_local.sin6_len = sizeof(sa6_local);
      sa6_local.sin6_addr = sa6->sin6_addr;
      sa6_local.sin6_scope_id = sa6->sin6_scope_id;

      if (numeric_addr)
            flag |= NI_NUMERICHOST;

      getnameinfo((struct sockaddr *)&sa6_local, sa6_local.sin6_len,
                line, sizeof(line), NULL, 0, flag);

      return line;
}
#endif /*INET6*/

/*
 * Print routing statistics
 */
void
rt_stats(u_long rtsaddr, u_long rttaddr)
{
      struct rtstat rtstat;
      int rttrash;

      if (rtsaddr == 0) {
            printf("rtstat: symbol not in namelist\n");
            return;
      }
      if (rttaddr == 0) {
            printf("rttrash: symbol not in namelist\n");
            return;
      }
      kread(rtsaddr, (char *)&rtstat, sizeof (rtstat));
      kread(rttaddr, (char *)&rttrash, sizeof (rttrash));
      printf("routing:\n");

#define     p(f, m) if (rtstat.f || sflag <= 1) \
      printf(m, rtstat.f, plural(rtstat.f))

      p(rts_badredirect, "\t%u bad routing redirect%s\n");
      p(rts_dynamic, "\t%u dynamically created route%s\n");
      p(rts_newgateway, "\t%u new gateway%s due to redirects\n");
      p(rts_unreach, "\t%u destination%s found unreachable\n");
      p(rts_wildcard, "\t%u use%s of a wildcard route\n");
#undef p

      if (rttrash || sflag <= 1)
            printf("\t%u route%s not in table but not freed\n",
                rttrash, plural(rttrash));
}

char *
ipx_print(struct sockaddr *sa)
{
      u_short port;
      struct servent *sp = 0;
      const char *net = "", *host = "";
      char *p;
      u_char *q;
      struct ipx_addr work = ((struct sockaddr_ipx *)sa)->sipx_addr;
      static char mybuf[50];
      char cport[10], chost[15], cnet[15];

      port = ntohs(work.x_port);

      if (ipx_nullnet(work) && ipx_nullhost(work)) {

            if (port) {
                  if (sp)
                        sprintf(mybuf, "*.%s", sp->s_name);
                  else
                        sprintf(mybuf, "*.%x", port);
            } else
                  sprintf(mybuf, "*.*");

            return (mybuf);
      }

      if (ipx_wildnet(work))
            net = "any";
      else if (ipx_nullnet(work))
            net = "*";
      else {
            q = work.x_net.c_net;
            sprintf(cnet, "%02x%02x%02x%02x",
                  q[0], q[1], q[2], q[3]);
            for (p = cnet; *p == '0' && p < cnet + 8; p++)
                  continue;
            net = p;
      }

      if (ipx_wildhost(work))
            host = "any";
      else if (ipx_nullhost(work))
            host = "*";
      else {
            q = work.x_host.c_host;
            sprintf(chost, "%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x",
                  q[0], q[1], q[2], q[3], q[4], q[5]);
            for (p = chost; *p == '0' && p < chost + 12; p++)
                  continue;
            host = p;
      }

      if (port) {
            if (strcmp(host, "*") == 0)
                  host = "";
            if (sp)
                  snprintf(cport, sizeof(cport),
                        "%s%s", *host ? "." : "", sp->s_name);
            else
                  snprintf(cport, sizeof(cport),
                        "%s%x", *host ? "." : "", port);
      } else
            *cport = 0;

      snprintf(mybuf, sizeof(mybuf), "%s.%s%s", net, host, cport);
      return(mybuf);
}

char *
ipx_phost(struct sockaddr *sa)
{
      struct sockaddr_ipx *sipx = (struct sockaddr_ipx *)sa;
      struct sockaddr_ipx work;
      static union ipx_net ipx_zeronet;
      char *p;
      struct ipx_addr in;

      work = *sipx;
      in = work.sipx_addr;

      work.sipx_addr.x_port = 0;
      work.sipx_addr.x_net = ipx_zeronet;
      p = ipx_print((struct sockaddr *)&work);
      if (strncmp("*.", p, 2) == 0) p += 2;

      return(p);
}

void
upHex(char *p0)
{
      char *p = p0;

      for (; *p; p++)
            switch (*p) {

            case 'a':
            case 'b':
            case 'c':
            case 'd':
            case 'e':
            case 'f':
                  *p += ('A' - 'a');
                  break;
            }
}

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